Investing can be a daunting task, especially for beginners who are just starting their financial journey. With a plethora of investment options available in the market, it can be overwhelming to choose the right one that suits your needs and goals. However, if you are looking for a secure and tax-efficient way to invest your hard-earned money, then the National Pension System (NPS) could be an ideal choice for you.

What is NPS?

The National Pension System is a government-sponsored retirement savings scheme, launched in 2004, aimed at providing a reliable and sustainable source of income for individuals during their retired life. NPS is regulated by the Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority (PFRDA) and is open to employees from the public, private, and unorganized sectors.

One of the key features of NPS is that it is a market-linked investment product, which means the returns are dependent on the performance of the underlying investments made by the pension fund managers. The scheme offers two types of accounts – Tier-I and Tier-II. Tier-I is the mandatory account that comes with certain restrictions on withdrawals, while Tier-II is a voluntary account that allows for easy withdrawals.

How to open an NPS account?

Opening an NPS account is a simple and straightforward process. Individuals can open an account through any of the authorized Points of Presence (POPs), which include banks, financial institutions, and other intermediaries. Alternatively, they can also open an account online through the NPS website.

To open an NPS account, you would need to provide your KYC (Know Your Customer) documents, such as Aadhaar card, PAN card, address proof, and passport-sized photograph. You would also need to fill out the application form and choose your investment preferences, including the asset allocation between equity, corporate bonds, and government securities.

Once your account is opened, you will be issued a Permanent Retirement Account Number (PRAN), which will be used for all future transactions and communications related to your NPS account.

Understanding NPS investment options

When it comes to investing in NPS, individuals can choose from two investment options – Active Choice and Auto Choice. Under the Active Choice option, investors have the flexibility to decide the asset allocation among four different asset classes – Equity, Corporate Bonds, Government Securities, and Alternative Investment Funds (AIFs). This option is suitable for individuals who have knowledge and understanding of different asset classes and are actively involved in managing their investments.

On the other hand, the Auto Choice option is a default option where the asset allocation is determined based on the investor’s age. It follows a lifecycle approach, wherein the equity allocation is higher in the initial years and gradually reduces with age, while the allocation to debt instruments increases. This option is suitable for individuals who prefer a hassle-free investment approach without the need for constant monitoring and rebalancing of their portfolio.

Tax benefits of investing in NPS

One of the major advantages of investing in NPS is the tax benefits it offers. Contributions made towards NPS are eligible for deduction under Section 80C of the Income Tax Act, up to a maximum limit of Rs. 1.5 lakh. Additionally, an exclusive deduction of up to Rs. 50,000 is available under Section 80CCD(1B) for contributions made towards NPS, over and above the limit of Section 80C. This makes NPS an attractive investment option for individuals looking to save taxes while planning for their retirement.

It is important to note that while the contributions towards NPS are eligible for tax deductions, the withdrawals from the scheme are taxable as per the prevailing tax laws. However, to provide some relief to individuals at the time of retirement, a certain portion of the corpus can be withdrawn as a lump sum, which is tax-free, while the remaining amount needs to be mandatorily used to purchase an annuity to provide regular income during the retirement years.

Monitoring and managing your NPS account

Once you have opened an NPS account and made your investments, it is crucial to regularly monitor and review your portfolio to ensure it aligns with your financial goals. The NPS website provides a secure online portal where you can track your investments, view your account statement, and make any necessary changes to your investment preferences or personal details.

It is also advisable to keep a track of the performance of the pension fund managers and make informed decisions based on their track record and expertise in managing investments. Regularly rebalancing your portfolio, based on market conditions and your risk appetite, can also help in optimizing the returns from your NPS investments.


Investing in the National Pension System can be a prudent choice for individuals looking to secure their financial future and enjoy a comfortable retirement. With its market-linked returns, tax benefits, and flexibility in investment options, NPS offers a compelling proposition for both novice and seasoned investors. However, it is recommended to assess your risk tolerance, financial goals, and consult with a financial advisor before taking the plunge into the world of NPS investing.

Remember, investing is a long-term commitment, and patience and discipline are key to achieving your financial aspirations. So, start early, stay invested, and watch your NPS account grow steadily over time!